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What is CBD Oil?

What is CBD

CBD is the acronym for Cannabidiol (1), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the Hemp plant. It is one of many compounds found in the cannabis plant that have shown to have advantageous properties to all mammal that share the same endocannabinoid system, without a psychotropic effect.

While CBD is not yet FDA approved for any condition, at this point when this article was written and it is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, many studies have shown promising results.  In this article we will go over discuss how the endocannabinoid system works and history, side effects, forms of consumption, legal status, if any issues exist with drug tests, can it be give to your pets, differences in terminology and how to choose the product that suits you best.

How Does the Endocannabinoid System Work?

CBD works on the regulatory system called Endocannabinoid System (2) in the body. 

Our bodies produce cannabinoids similar to CBD and THC, naturally. Our endogenous cannabinoid system, or Endocannabinoid system (ECS), has been discovered in recent decades as a system of naturally occurring cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor sites within our entire body.

CBD - endocannabinoid system chart

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring in the brain and nervous system that activate the same receptor sites as cannabinoids from the cannabis plant. Endocannabinoid system is active in several physiological processes on a daily basis, effecting metabolic functions, energy level and mood, immune activity, stress, anxiety, gastrointestinal system, sleep functions and more.

Thus it is a reasonable conclusion that regulating and creating a balance in the endocannabinoid (3) system may have a powerful therapeutic contribution and potential as well as make a positive impact on over all homeostasis. 

Is the Endocannabinoid System Real?

Discovered in the late 1990s, the Endocannabinoid System, or ECS is a biological system found in all vertebrates; mammals and other species, composed of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors. Initially, research has suggested that these receptors were only present in the brain and nerves but more recently scientist have found that these receptors exist throughout the body, including our skin, immune cells, bone, fat tissue, liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, blood vessels, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. 

Endocannabinoids are endogenous neurotransmitters that are produced by our bodies. They regulate neurotransmission and allow for feedback loops. Anandamide and 2 Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the two primary endocannabinoids.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the central nervous system.

Research has now shown that Endocannabinoid system is involved in a broad range of processes.

The endocannabinoid system is believed to have more cellular receptor sites than any other receptor system. The widespread distribution of these cannabinoid receptors shows just how important the endocannabinoid is to our overall bodily function and health.

What are the side effects of CBD?

World Health Organization (WHO) report, published in November 2017, titled WHO Report Finds No Public Health Risks Or Abuse Potential For CBD (4) has written and published that CBD is safe and well tolerated in humans and animals.  It is not associated with any negative health effects. Experts in the field have stated that "CBD does not induce physical dependence and is not associated with abuse potential.”

"To date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD

~ World Health Organization, 11.2017 (5)

What Form of CBD is Most Effective?

There are various types of extraction and processing methods and 3 main final product types.  Ethanol extraction is a common method that has been used for over a 100 years in pharmacology, the medicinal field and used in cannabis in the United States up until 1937 when prohibition outlawed it.  Along with ethanol, CO2 and chromatography as well as other solvent free methods are extraction methods that have many advantages.  It is considered best practices to use solvent free or a process that does not add anything or change the temperature as least as possible to not change or modify the compound’s molecular structure.

In addition there are 3 different types of final products that are options went purchasing CBD:

1.) FULL SPECTRUM - Utilizing the whole plant with over 150 cannabinoids, over 100 terpenes which are responsible for the fragrance which has therapeutic benefits (ie: lavender scent has a calming effect) and 15-25 flavonoids (6) which also have therapeutic value of the plant.  Full spectrum also has the added entourage effect which is a synergistic effect, benefits are enhanced by having the whole plant compounds working together.  The sum of it’s parts exceeds the compounds individually.

2.) BROAD SPECTRUM - Within the extraction process plant compounds are separated, THC is taking out and putting the compounds back together to create a finished product.  This product is a 0% THC free CBD oil in most cases, or ND (non-detectable).

3.) ISOLATE- Plant compounds are extracted and processed and separated and only CBD is left, no other compounds are present in the final product.

Is CBD Legal?

Is CBD legal?

Over the past 15-20 years in the United States and across the globe cannabis has gone through a transformation in terms of public perception and legal status.  After decades of what many consider propaganda demonization of cannabis, spreading non-evidence based information, a campaign of “weed madness” in the education system and beyond, the general public has shifted its understanding and acceptance of the plant and the potential benefits it may have for consumers.  Through positive personal experience, studies and science that have supported potential benefits and the federal legal status that broke the decades long prohibition, CBD is federally legal and has gained public acceptance for the most part.

The 2018 Farm Bill (7) was passed legalizing hemp by defining it as a genome of the cannabis plant having less than 0.3% Delta-9 THC, stating the use, context and jurisdiction.  However it is still important to check your individual State and Indian Tribe Territories own guidelines and regulations to understand the legal local status. (8)

Does CBD get me High?

CBD is a non-psychoactive compound, which means it does not have the euphoric effects like the compound THC.  There are many ways of consuming CBD; tinctures, edibles, vape, topically or CBD premium capsules, serving size is a determining factor, however even with higher doses the feeling of relaxed or “uplifted” that many people experience, is different than a high.

If you have ever used a THC products you will clearly understand the difference in effect.  Depending on the state you live and the legal status, there are products that mix CBD and THC which people have experienced to be beneficial in achieving their goals.

It is also recommended to consult your physician or medical professional before using CBD oil.  A person’s age, weight, general health, other medications they may be taking all are factors in using a premium CBD products.

What’s the Best Way to Take CBD?

best consumption forms of CBD

There are several different types of ways and forms of taking CBD:

  1. CBD Oil/Tincture

  2. Capsules

  3. Edible

  4. Vape/Smokable flower

  5. Topical

Each has certain attributes that may be an advantage or disadvantage depending on what you are trying to achieve or address by taking CBD. 

CBD oil has quick and great absorption when taken sublingually (under the tongue).  This form of consumption can be convenient to fine tune serving size.  Capsules are a great option especially if you know the mg you need, common potency are 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg. It may take 20-60 minutes to take effect.  Capsules can be nice to take in public or work environment given its ambiguous nature.  Edibles such as gummies has similar attributes as capsule but in a different consumption form.

Vaping or smoking has the quickest effect but may not last as long as oral consumption.  Topical CBD is for external use only, to address inflammation, pain symptoms, soreness muscle aches and more.

Will CBD Show up on a Drug Test?

If you are applying CBD topically, there are no known issues or tests that come back positive since CBD is not entering the bloodstream.  When taking CBD in a form that enters the bloodstream such as a premium CBD tinctures (CBD oil), edibles, vape or smokable for example, it is worthwhile to note that although typical drug tests do not test for CBD there maybe a situation that the small amount of THC that is of the legal limit collects if the person is using a high and consistent dose.  The type of test and sensitivity is a factor as well.  This is especially a consideration when one is using a full spectrum CBD product that has the whole plant effect with up to 0.3% delta 9 THC.  If your work place does have a drug test policy you should plan accordingly and consider the chances of a test coming back positive as well as have a discussion with your employer that you have been using a legal CBD product.

Can I give it to my dog?

Pet wellness CBD for dogs and cats

Your furry friend will thank you!  Since dog and cats have the same endocannabinoid system and receptors CBD has the same potential benefits as it does for humans.  Some situations that pet owners have experienced benefit is for older dogs with certain ailments, arthritis, separation anxiety, traveling, 4th of July fireworks and more.

It is important to find the property serving size depending on your dog’s weight and condition.  You can simply place the CBD Wellness Pet tincture  in their food or on a treat or purchase ready made CBD treats.  Some pet owners give it directly from the dropper, however it is not recommended since it will be come dirty.

Are CBD Oil and Hemp Oil the Same?

They are not the same thing although some people incorrectly use them synonymously.  CBD oil is the oil that is extracted and processed from the hemp plant that is rich in CBD and other cannabinoids.  Hemp oil is derived from from the seeds which is used for food products and production, topical and skincare products.

What do you look for in a quality CBD product?

It is important to search for a reputable CBD company that you trust will deliver a clean, safe and accurate product. (4)

The company should have:

  1. Good description of the product so you can understand the product you are buying.

  2. Lab verified so you can see that it has been tested for impurities, heavy metals, contaminants or pesticides and potency, to insure you are purchasing a pure tincture CBD product.

  3. Labels that have suggested use and state clearly the potency.

  4. If the price is too good to be true maybe it is the case.

  5. Educate yourself so you know what you are looking for.

  6. Make sure there are quality ingredients aside from CBD.

  7. Look for hemp made in the USA.

Then all you have to do is decide what consumption type of premium hemp extracts you are looking to purchase.

Summary

These are some of the fundamental concepts and items to consider when purchasing CBD and understanding what cannabindiol or CBD is and how it can be of benefit.  It is also important to be patient with you expectations, it takes times for some people for the effects to take hold.  But if you keep track of the serving size you are taking and adjust that gradually, implement general wellness practices such as a health diet, regular exercise, having positive social interaction, staying active physical and mentally, spend time outside or in nature and seek out actives that bring happiness, you can experience what many have already done.

References:

(1) WebMD “Cannabidiol (Cbd)”

(2) US National Library of Medicine National Institues of Health: “Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System” Published: March 13, 2018 Authors: Shengiong You and Ujendra Kumar

(3) US National Library of Medicine National Institues of Health: “ Modulating the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease: successes and failures” Published: April 22, 2013 Authors: Pal Pacher and George Kunos

(4) Forbes: “WHO Report Finds No Public Health Risks Or Abuse Potential For CBD” Published: March 18,2018 Authors: Janet Burns

(5) Mayo Clinic “What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use?” Published: December 20, 2020 Author: Answer from Brent A. Bauer. M.D.

(6) US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health "Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules" Published: February 4, 2016 Authors: Christelle M. Andre, Jean-Francois Hausman and Gea Guerriero.

(7) US Food & Drug Administration "Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D." Published: December 20, 2018 Author: Scott Gottlieb, M.D.

(8) National Conference of State Legislatures "State Law" Authors: May 18, 2021